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The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory. Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a " latent image " on plate or film or RAW file in digital cameras which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device CCD or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS technology.

The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper. The camera or ' camera obscura ' is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated.

This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used see Process camera. As soon as photographic materials became "fast" sensitive enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch the Ticka camera or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens. The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium.

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In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" number of frames per second. While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures to create the illusion of motion. Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision.

Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods including cell phone cameras. Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once e. The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image.

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the s.

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New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography , where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions. Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue or cyan, yellow and magenta colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet blue window and infrared primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters.

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography , geology , forensics and law enforcement. Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of "light field photography" also known as synthetic aperture photography. This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected after the photograph has been captured. These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor.

Every pixel of the final image is actually a selection from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm. Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available.


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For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera.


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  7. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures. The quality of some amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera.

    Good pictures can now be taken with a cell phone which is a key tool for making photography more accessible to everyone.


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    8. Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include:. During the 20th century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system.

      Holland Day , and Edward Weston , spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art.

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      At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism , often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles.

      Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image.

      If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art. There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless.

      What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph.

      Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract. Photojournalism is a particular form of photography the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast that employs images in order to tell a news story.

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      It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography e. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other.

      Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining. The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events eclipses for example , small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes in photomicroscopy and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography.

      Crime scene photos are taken from three vantage point. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-up. In Francis Ronalds , the Honorary Director of the Kew Observatory , invented the first successful camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produced or hour photographic traces of the minute-by-minute variations of atmospheric pressure , temperature, humidity , atmospheric electricity , and the three components of geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century.

      Science uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography , as well as spectroscopy.

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      Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time. The first photographed atom was discovered in by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an "Ion" of the element, Ytterbium.