With Smith's leadership, however, Jamestown survived and eventually flourished. Smith was forced to return to England after being injured by an accidental explosion of gunpowder in a canoe. Smith's books and maps were important in encouraging and supporting English colonization of the New World. He named the region of New England and noted: "Here every man may be master and owner of his owne labour and land.
Smith's exact birth date is unclear. He was baptized on 6 January at Willoughby ,  near Alford, Lincolnshire where his parents rented a farm from Lord Willoughby. Smith set off to sea at age 16 after his father died. He then went to the Mediterranean where he engaged in trade and piracy, and later fought against the Ottoman Turks in the Long Turkish War.
He was promoted to a cavalry captain while fighting for the Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary in the campaign of Michael the Brave in and Smith reputedly killed and beheaded three Ottoman challengers in single-combat duels, for which he was knighted by the Prince of Transylvania and given a horse and a coat of arms showing three Turks' heads.
He then was taken to the Crimea , where he escaped from Ottoman lands into Muscovy , then on to the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth before traveling through Europe and North Africa, returning to England in In , Smith became involved with the Virginia Company of London 's plan to colonize Virginia for profit, and King James had already granted a charter.
The expedition set sail in the Discovery , the Susan Constant , and the Godspeed on 20 December His page was a year-old boy named Samuel Collier. During the voyage, Smith was charged with mutiny, and Captain Christopher Newport in charge of the three ships had planned to execute him. These events happened approximately when the expedition stopped in the Canary Islands   for resupply of water and provisions.
Smith was under arrest for most of the trip. However, they landed at Cape Henry on 26 April and unsealed orders from the Virginia Company designating Smith as one of the leaders of the new colony, thus sparing him from the gallows. By the summer of , the colonists were still living in temporary housing.
The search for a suitable site ended on 14 May when Captain Edward Maria Wingfield , president of the council, chose the Jamestown site as the location for the colony. After the four-month ocean trip, their food stores were sufficient only for each to have a cup or two of grain-meal per day, and someone died almost every day due to swampy conditions and widespread disease.
By September, more than 60 had died of the who left England. In early January , nearly new settlers arrived with Captain Newport on the First Supply , but the village was set on fire through carelessness. That winter, the James River froze over, and the settlers were forced to live in the burned ruins. During this time, they wasted much of the three months that Newport and his crew were in port loading their ships with iron pyrite fool's gold.
Food supplies ran low, although the Indians brought some food, and Smith wrote that "more than half of us died". In October , Newport brought a second shipment of supplies along with 70 new settlers, including the first women. Some German, Polish, and Slovak craftsmen also arrived,     but they brought no food supplies. Newport brought a list of counterfeit Virginia Company orders which angered Smith greatly. One of the orders was to crown Indian leader Powhatan emperor and give him a fancy bedstead. The Company wanted Smith to pay for Newport's voyage with pitch, tar, sawed boards, soap ashes, and glass.
After that, Smith tried to obtain food from the local Indians, but it required threats of military force for them to comply. He called a meeting and threatened those who were not working "that he that will not work shall not eat.
Book 3 - Chapter 4 - Break free the chains that bind you.
Indians captured Smith in December while he was seeking food along the Chickahominy River , and they took him to meet the chief of the Powhatans at Werowocomoco , the main village of the Powhatan Confederacy. The village was on the north shore of the York River about 15 miles north of Jamestown and 25 miles downstream from where the river forms from the Pamunkey River and the Mattaponi River at West Point, Virginia.
Smith feared for his life, but he was eventually released without harm and later attributed this in part to the chief's daughter Pocahontas who threw herself across his body:  "at the minute of my execution, she hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine; and not only that, but so prevailed with her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown".
In , Boston businessman and historian Charles Deane was the first scholar to question specific details of Smith's writings.
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Smith's version of events is the only source and skepticism has increasingly been expressed about its veracity. One reason for such doubt is that, despite having published two earlier books about Virginia, Smith's earliest surviving account of his rescue by Pocahontas dates from , nearly 10 years later, in a letter entreating Queen Anne to treat Pocahontas with dignity.
Preface and Letters 1–4
However, professor Leo Lemay of the University of Delaware points out that Smith's earlier writing was primarily geographical and ethnographic in nature and did not dwell on his personal experiences; hence, there was no reason for him to write down the story until this point. Henry Brooks Adams attempted to debunk Smith's claims of heroism. He said that Smith's recounting of the story of Pocahontas had been progressively embellished, made up of "falsehoods of an effrontery seldom equaled in modern times". There is consensus among historians that Smith tended to exaggerate, but his account is consistent with the basic facts of his life.
Price notes in Love and Hate in Jamestown that this is purely speculation, since little is known of Powhatan rituals and there is no evidence for any similar rituals among other Indian tribes in America. Karen Kupperman suggests that he "presented those remembered events from decades earlier" when telling the story of Pocahontas. As the colonists expanded farther, some of the tribes felt that their lands were threatened, and conflicts arose again.
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In , Pocahontas is said to have saved Smith a second time. Chief Powhatan invited Smith and some other colonists to Werowocomoco on friendly terms, but Pocahontas came to the hut where they were staying and warned them that Powhatan was planning to kill them. They stayed on their guard and the attack never came. Smith wrote that two Poles rescued him when he was attacked by an Indian. In the summer of , Smith left Jamestown to explore the Chesapeake Bay region and search for badly needed food, covering an estimated 3, miles. In his absence, Smith left his friend Matthew Scrivener as governor in his place, a young gentleman adventurer from Sibton Suffolk who was related by marriage to the Wingfield family, but he was not capable of leading the people.
Some of the settlers eventually wanted Smith to abandon Jamestown, but he refused. Some deserted to the Indian villages, but Powhatan's people also followed Smith's law of "he who works not, eats not". This lasted "till they were near starved indeed", in Smith's words, and they returned home. In the spring of , Jamestown was beginning to prosper, with many dwellings built, acres of land cleared, and much other work done. Then in April, they experienced an infestation of rats, along with dampness which destroyed all their stored corn.
They needed food badly and Smith sent a large group of settlers to fish and others to gather shellfish downriver.
They came back without food and were willing enough to take the meager rations offered them. This angered Smith and he ordered them to trade their guns and tools for fruit from the Indians and ordered everyone to work or be banished from the fort. The weeks-long emergency was relieved by the arrival of an unexpected ship captained by Samuel Argall.leondumoulin.nl/language/classic/a-day-of-target-practise.php
The journey ep 8
He had items of food and wine which Smith bought on credit. Argall also brought news that the Virginia Company of London was being reorganized and was sending more supplies and settlers to Jamestown, along with Lord De la Warr to become the new governor. In a May voyage to Virginia, Virginia Company treasurer Sir Thomas Smith arranged for about colonists to come along, including women and children.
A fleet of nine ships set sail. One sank in a storm soon after leaving the harbour, and the Sea Venture wrecked on the Bermuda Islands with flotilla admiral Sir George Somers aboard. They finally made their way to Jamestown in May after building the Deliverance and Patience to take most of the passengers and crew of the Sea Venture off Bermuda, with the new governor Thomas Gates on board. In August , Smith was quite surprised to see more than new settlers arrive, which did not go well for him.
London was sending new settlers with no real planning or logistical support. Gates soon found that there was not enough food to support all in the colony and decided to abandon Jamestown. As their boats were leaving the Jamestown area, they met a ship carrying the new governor Lord De la Warr, who ordered them back to Jamestown. The Patience then sailed for England instead of Virginia, captained by his nephew. Smith was severely injured by a gunpowder explosion in his canoe, and he sailed to England for treatment in mid-October He never returned to Virginia.
The Virginia Company, however, continued to finance and transport settlers to sustain Jamestown. For the next five years, Governors Gates and Sir Thomas Dale continued to keep strict discipline, with Sir Thomas Smith in London attempting to find skilled craftsmen and other settlers to send. He named the region " New England ".
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Stay tuned for more new about this series and look for the second work coming out sometime in ! Hope has been a good year for all of my readers and fellow authors. Wishing you a healthy and Happy New Year! Also available as an audio book via Audible , Amazon and iTunes!
Personally, I lost a favorite uncle to cancer, and witnessed other extended family members battle for their lives in efforts to beat this deadly disease. On the other hand, we triumphantly celebrated the st birthday of a special aunt. Each year has surprises in store for us no matter how much we plan out our lives. Your kind words and thoughtful reviews spur me onward to continue this fascinating journey! This year promises to be a busy one with writing projects to complete, as well as new ones to begin. All have inspired creative ideas through the years. This year, my mini-research and relaxation trips will be called the Vintage Voyages of One Vintage Heart!