Noblemen were allowed damask and silk as fabric for their outfits, as well as six ells c. Knights were allowed to wear a necklace for up to four hundred florins as well as marten lining.
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Married noblewomen could own four silken gowns to wear in public, one made of velvet, and the others made of damask. These could be trimmed with up to a quarter of an ell c. Those married to a knight could use gold for trimmings. Every wife was permitted to own more dresses to pass on to her children, but not to wear them in public. A final article concerned earls and lords, who were classed lower than knights, although their wives were allowed jewellery valued up to six hundred florins.
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The Empire gave up on any notion of comprehensive guidance on dress in the IPO. It contained only seven articles on dress, which were most specific in relation to the upper orders, and essentially removed the bulk of sumptuary legislation. Every local territorial ruler and urban magistrate was told to issue an ordinance within one year which would define honourable dress as well as punishments for offenders.
Non-obliging authorities would be punished with a fine by the Emperor. The regulations for the nobility, knights, doctors, earls and lords Graven und Herrn were essentially copied, even with the same figures for the money which could be spent on fabric or jewellery — it was thus likely to have been instantly disregarded as outdated. This suggests, in sum, that considerable attention was given to sumptuary legislation in , but that it quickly became clear that local ordinances with regulations specific to the population in the towns and countryside were needed to implement changes.
Imperial legislation from onwards limited itself to specifying regulations for the nobility, knights and earls. They remained unadjusted, and thus were not given any further attention. These top elites effectively had created protective laws to reproduce their privilege and did not enforce any new regulation for themselves between and They were primarily directed at the imperial estates rather than the populace as such, and in turn some territorial rulers legitimised their own legislation with reference to the IPO.
Austrian regulations in relation to common people were not changed until and then abandoned after This is significant for any account of state-building in the period. German imperial sumptuary legislation should be regarded as neither an engine of social disciplining nor a marker of a well-governed police state.
Hence it opened the way for territorial diversification and innovative mercantile policies in relation to textile products that were marketed in the German lands Figure 1. Frontispiece, L. This leaves us with the question whether German territories consistently and effectively regulated expenses on appearances in order to ensure and enshrine a symbolic, material politics of social inequality in the public sphere.
Its first police ordinance in exactly reiterated the imperial articles on clothing for common peasants and added slight variations to legislation for urban citizens and tradespeople. Yet they mostly seem not to have enforced their local implementation through officials.
Ducal officials were principally tasked with criminal offences, while lower courts were staffed by local men. Samples show that almost no cases of sumptuary excess were tried by the lower or church court. His son John Frederick followed these early cameralist principles. It prohibited burghers from wearing cotton and Indienne garments.
Six offenders wore cotton fabrics. Those who found themselves in court mainly came from socially mobile bourgeois classes, whose overly sumptuous spending before marriage was seen as a threat to the social order. Ogilvie also demonstrates that women and men in some localities were occasionally disciplined for their overly sumptuous dress in church convents or local courts, and in relation to items of dress not regulated by state legislation. The duchy did not renew its sumptuary legislation after , but issued a number of edicts relating to the prohibition of costly mourning dress, church dress and official dress.
These could insist that proper dress needed to be worn, rather than prohibiting sumptuousness. Ceramics depicting the popular fair replicated the allure of choice and spread an emotional culture which cultivated the pleasures of shopping.
Bavaria was another sizeable as well as influential territory in the empire, and it was Catholic. In , Duke Wilhelm and Duke Ludwig of Bavaria issued an extensive dress ordinance to fight the impoverishment caused by excessive sumptuousness. The ordinance distinguished eight broad status groups in seventeen articles. Gold thread was not permitted on shirts, partlets, or headwear.
Low-quality furs, such as fox-fur, were permitted. Wives of master craftsmen were allowed these same fabrics and trimmings from velvet and silk to up to a quarter of an ell. Silver jewellery was allowed for decorating the paternoster, and for a wedding ring, as well as two lots of silver for the girdle or dress decorations.
savaceli.ga Bonnets could not be lined with costly marten fur, but otherwise could be worn in any shape and form. Veils could be decorated with some gold, and daughters were permitted pearl hair-bands. Journeymen and mercenaries were not allowed any gold, silver, velvet, marten-fur or any other fur lining for their bonnet. Men in these status groups, and even rich peasants, were told not to wear slashed clothing, bonnets, or any fur other than from goats or lambs. Women were allowed one velvet and silken hair-band.
Yet this ordinance was never printed. Nor was there a Bavarian response to the and Imperial Police Ordinances. The IPO was followed by a territorial ordinance in which included sumptuary legislation. It differentiated seven groups: peasants and other professions in the countryside, such as inn-keepers; members of the urban population citizens, artisans and tradespeople ; merchants, magistrates and judges; patricians in the four main towns; knights and nobility; earls and Freiherrn ; and, finally, maidservants.
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This remained the pattern. Common citizens in towns were allowed trimmings of up to two fingers of velvet, rings and jewellery for up to ten florins, hair-bands for up to six florins and girdles with silver for up to eight florins, as well as fox fur. While no further Bavarian police ordinances were issued during the seventeenth century, Maximilian I — issued detailed printed sumptuary laws in These likewise distinguished seven groups: peasants, and other professions in villages; the urban population as separated into three groups: a lower group, merchants and patricians; and doctors.
Unusually, this ordinance mandated that children up to the age of thirteen were to be dressed according to the rank below their parents. Common rural folk were told to wear lamb or calf fur, while rich peasants were allowed goat or ram fur. Women and children, however, could have their gowns modestly trimmed with satin and velvet imitate. Scarlet was prohibited as a colour. Garters could be made only of lower-quality taffeta, and silk stockings were to be changed for woollen or linen stockings. Expensive cordovan shoes made from fine suede leather were outlawed, and there were the usual prohibitions on the qualities of fur.
Intricate cordwain purses with eight silver buttons and four closures were permitted — the ordinance thus responded to the attractiveness of such fashionable accessories. Wreaths worn for weddings were not to cost more than six florins, and the value of false braids was likewise limited. Girdles could be worn up to the value of twelve florins. Delinquents were asked to pay a third of the value of each overly sumptuous item of dress as a fine, and half of it if they were caught again. The item could be confiscated if a person is offended again or there could be public forms of punishment.
An ordinance in announced a new era of regulation. It issued a catalogue of licencing fees which were to be paid for exemptions. Those who were caught with overly sumptuous clothes for which they had not bought a licence on paper were to be fined, while those offending more than twice could be publicly punished. This marks the beginning of a new regime of luxury fines, from which the nobility at court with their families as well as livery-wearing employees were exempt.
The eighteenth century thus emerges as a period in which fiscal concerns became dominant in territories.
Legislation initially was nonetheless rather generous; yet major, printed legal ordinances in and kept sumptuary laws relevant to territorial governance in a Catholic state. This poses the question of whether or not confessional differences shaped sumptuary politics. In , archbishop Johann von Hoya sought to regulate excessive expenses at festivities and articles incorporated in a new police ordinance that made distinctions solely between inhabitants in towns and the countryside. This ordinance hence was less restrictive than the IPO because it allowed peasants to wear jewellery and accessories from metals and materials other than gold and also allowed one outfit to be made from foreign fabric.
It left urban citizens entirely unregulated, and was repeated in exactly the same form several times up to It was not renewed in a further ordinance in The first edict which specifically targeted sumptuous dress dates from , and this was by far the most comprehensive regulation the territory had ever witnessed. This was a period which furthered the consumption of locally produced fabrics, and it appears that the edict was enforced and thus further developed and renewed in Import taxes for foreign cloth were specified.
By , the ordinance solely addressed taxable peasants. This indicates, in sum, that there was no confessionally specific and uniform response in the German lands, and this is borne out by evidence from Catholic and Lutheran towns. Its initial laws only regulated rural populations, but were more generous than imperial laws. Very rarely can we trace lower-class women who bought more luxurious items, were reported by neighbours or officials and punished for wearing them.
The lists of police regulations in the German lands bear this out: many regulations of dress and luxury continued to focus on weddings and baptisms, and sumptuary laws made up a small percentage of the regulation involving social order Figure 1. This finally leads us to a discussion of urban legislation in the early modern period. Lieselotte Eisenbart was the first to highlight the new importance of divisions by rank in early modern legislation and established that these most frequently distinguished only between three ranks.
Maidservants, seamstresses and other wage-earning women stood at the bottom of the hierarchy. The second lowest rank encompassed thirty-five badly paid professions, such as male day-labourers and basket weavers. Next followed a group of professions of the lower middling classes: simple scribes, lower officials or low-ranking shopkeepers, for instance. The upper middle class was linked to forty-nine professions, such as silk embroiderers, goldsmiths, clock-makers and respected officials.