Additionally, the properties of the particles are discussed in relation to their surface structure and characteristics. This book describes the fundamentals of statistical methods for measuring the characteristics of particles. New advanced materials being developed in powder technology manufacturing techniques are also emphasised, including powdered materials for advanced ceramics as well as magnetic and pigment materials.
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Machining for Hobbyists K. Industrial Engineering Foundations Farrokh Sassani. Other books in this series. Pneumatic Conveying of Solids G. Particle Size Measurements Henk G. This book had its origins in a meeting between two relatively young particle technology researchers on Rehobeth Beach in Delaware in near the holiday house of Reg Davies then Director of the Particle Science and Technology Research Center ….
Top-Down/mechanical-physical production processes
Examples include the crystallization of …. Over half of the products of the chemical and process industries are sold in a particulate form. The range of such products is vast: from agrochemicals to pigments, from detergents to foods, from plastics to pharmaceuticals. However, surveys of ….
When the four of us decided to collaborate to write this book on pneumatic conveying, there were two aspects which were of some concern. Firstly, how could four people, who liveon four different continents, write a book on a fairly complex subject …. Chemistry of Powder Production focuses on the solid-state chemistry of powder materials and relates this to the structure, properties and preparation, and characterization techniques for these important industrial products.
Additionally, the ….
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This English edition is not an unedited translation of the German edition of In precipitation processes, particle size and size distribution, crystallinity and morphology shape are determined by reaction kinetics reaction speed. The influencing factors include, beyond the concentration of the source material, the temperature, pH value of the solution, the sequence in which the source materials are added, and mixing processes. A good size control can be achieved by using self-assembled membranes, which in turn serve as nanoreactors for particle production.
Such nanoreactors include microemulsions, bubbles, micelles and liposomes.
They are composed of a polar group and a non-polar hydrocarbon chain. Micro-emulsions, for example, consist of two liquids that cannot be mixed with one another in the concentrations used, usually water and oil along with at least one tenside substance that reduces the surface tension of liquids. In certain solvents this gives rise to small reactors in which nucleation and controlled particle growth take place. Particle size is determined by the size of the nanoreactors and, at the same time, particle agglomeration is prevented.
Micro-emulsion processes are often used to produce nanoparticles for pharmaceutical and cosmetics applications. An additional process that is based on self-organized growth with templates and coatings is hydrothermal synthesis. Zeolites microporous aluminum-silicon compounds are produced from aqueous superheated solutions in autoclaves airtight pressure chambers. The partial vaporization of the solvent creates pressure in the autoclaves several bars , triggering chemical reactions that differ from those under standard conditions, for example by altering the solubility.
Nanoparticle formation and cavity shape can be controlled by adding templates. Templates are particles with bonds that enable the formation of certain forms and sizes. Sol-gel syntheses production of a gel from powder-shaped materials are wet-chemical processes for producing porous nanomaterials, ceramic nanostructured polymers as well as oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis takes place under relatively mild conditions and low temperatures. The term sol refers to dispersions of solid particles in the nm size range, which are finely distributed in water or organic solvents.
In sol-gel processes, material production or deposition takes place from a liquid sol state, which is converted into a solid gel state via a sol-gel transformation. The sol-gel transformation involves a three-dimensional cross-linking of the nanoparticles in the solvent, whereby the gel takes on bulk properties.
A controlled heat treatment in air can transform gels into a ceramic oxide material. To start with, adding organic substances in the sol-gel process produces an organometallic compound from a solution containing an alcoxide metallic compound of an alcohol, for example with silicon, titanium or aluminum. The pH value of the solution is adjusted with an acid or a base which, as a catalyst, also triggers the transformation of the alcoxide. The subsequent reactions are hydrolysis splitting of a chemical bond by water followed by condensation and polymerization reaction giving rise to many- or long-chained compounds from single-chained ones.
The particles or the polymer oxide grow as the reaction continues, until a gel is formed. Due to the high porosity of the network, the particles typically have a large surface area, i. The course of hydrolysis and the polycondensation reaction depend on many factors: the composition of the initial solution, the type and amount of catalyst, temperature as well as the reactor- and mixing geometry.
Particle Technology Series
For coatings, the alcoxide initial solution of the sol-gel process can be applied on surfaces of any geometry. After the wetting, the build-up of the porous network takes place through gel formation, yielding thicknesses of nm. Thicker layers, suitable as membranes for example, are created by repeated wetting and drying.
The sol-gel process can also be used to produce fibers. In all cases, gel formation is followed by a drying step.
Figure 4 illustrates the different reaction and processing steps of the sol-gel process. Figure 4. Reaction and processing steps in the sol-gel process.